Here is a list of some of the articles we have published. For each article we have included an abstract. Where possible we have included a link that enables you to download the full article from this site (free of charge). If the article is only available on the publisher’s website we have included a link to the external website. NOTE: The publisher may require payment to access articles held on their servers.
Laura I. Salazar-Fontana, Dharmesh D. Desai, Tarik A. Khan, Renuka C. Pillutla, Sandra Prior, Radha Ramakrishnan, Jennifer Schneider & Alexandra Joseph. Approaches to Mitigate the Unwanted Immunogenicity of Therapeutic Proteins during Drug Development. The AAPS Journal 2017, 19: 377
The purpose of this paper is to show that an integrated immunogenicity data analysis is crucial to understanding the possible clinical consequences of anti-drug antibody (ADA) responses. Because patient- and product-related factors can influence the immunogenicity of a therapeutic protein, a risk-based approach is recommended and followed by most drug developers to provide insight over the potential harm of unwanted ADA responses. This paper examines mitigation strategies currently implemented and novel under investigation approaches used by drug developers. The review describes immunomodulatory regimens used in the clinic to mitigate deleterious ADA responses to replacement therapies for deficiency syndromes, such as hemophilia A and B, and high risk classical infantile Pompe patients (e.g., cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, rituximab); novel in silico and in vitro prediction tools used to select candidates based on their immunogenicity potential (e.g., anti-CD52 antibody primary sequence and IFN beta-1a formulation); in vitro generation of tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to reduce ADA responses to factor VIII and IX in murine models of hemophilia; and selection of novel delivery systems to reduce in vivo ADA responses to highly immunogenic biotherapeutics (e.g., asparaginase). We conclude that mitigation strategies should be considered early in development for biotherapeutics based on our knowledge of existing clinical data for biotherapeutics and the immune response involved in the generation of these ADAs.
Paul Chamberlain. Effective presentation of immunogenicity risk assessments and related data in regulatory dossiers. Bioanalysis 2019, 11 (17), 1581-1592.
The purpose of this article is to provide practical advice about how to present immunogenicity-related information in regulatory dossiers, with a particular focus on a model for an Integrated Summary of Immunogenicity to be submitted in the marketing authorization application for novel biopharmaceutical products in ICH regions (EU, USA and Japan). A format that links the analysis of potential risk factors to a justification of the methodology applied for risk evaluation and conclusions for risk mitigation is presented as a model that can be adapted according to the weight of evidence to be submitted in support of the assessment of impact on overall clinical benefit versus risk for the particular situation.Download the publication
Paul Chamberlain. Presentation of immunogenicity-related information in regulatory dossiers. Regulatory Rapporteur May 2020, Vol. 17, No. 5.
The purpose of this continuing professional development supplement is to explain how an integrated summary report can be created to consolidate the information required for assessment of immunogenicity-related risks of different types of biopharmaceuticals.Download the publication
Paul Chamberlain & Bonita Rup. Immunogenicity Risk Assessment for an Engineered Human Cytokine Analogue Expressed in Different Cell Substrates. The AAPS Journal 2020, 22: 65
The purpose of this article is to illustrate how performance of an immunogenicity risk assessment at the earliest stage of product development can be instructive for critical early decision-making such as choice of host system for expression of a recombinant therapeutic protein and determining the extent of analytical characterization and control of heterogeneity in co- and post-translational modifications. Application of a risk-based approach for a hypothetical recombinant DNA analogue of a human endogenous cytokine with immunomodulatory functions is described. The implications of the choice of expression system for relative risk are discussed in relation to specific actions for evaluation and measures for risk mitigation, including use of in silico and in vitro methods to understand intrinsic immunogenic potential relative to incremental risk associated with nonhuman glycan and protein impurities. Finally, practical guidance on presentation of this information in regulatory submissions to support clinical development is provided.Download the publication (external link)